SQL and SQLPlus are two tools used in the Oracle Database environment. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language for managing and manipulating relational databases, while SQLPlus is an Oracle-specific command-line interface that allows users to interact with the database using SQL commands.
Here are some key differences between SQL and SQL*Plus commands:
Purpose and Functionality
SQL is a language used to communicate with a database. It is used for querying, updating, and managing data in a relational database management system (RDBMS). SQL statements include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and others.
SQLPlus is a command-line tool that provides an interactive environment for executing SQL commands and scripts. It enhances the functionality of SQL by providing additional commands for formatting, reporting, and controlling the SQL execution environment.
SQL is typically used within an application or a development environment that provides a graphical user interface (GUI) or an integrated development environment (IDE). Users write SQL statements within the designated SQL editor or query builder.
SQLPlus is a command-line interface, meaning users interact with the database by typing commands directly into a command prompt or terminal window.
SQL focuses on data manipulation and retrieval. It does not provide additional commands for formatting reports or controlling the execution environment.
SQLPlus extends SQL by introducing additional commands that are specific to the SQLPlus tool. These commands help in formatting query results, generating reports, spooling output to files, defining variables, controlling the SQLPlus environment, and executing scripts.
SQL statements can be executed one at a time, typically within an application or a query tool. However, SQL itself does not have built-in scripting capabilities to execute a sequence of statements.
SQLPlus allows users to create scripts by saving a series of SQL and SQLPlus commands in a text file. These scripts can then be executed in SQLPlus using the ‘@’ command or by passing the script file as an argument to the SQL*Plus command.
Formatting and Reporting
SQL does not provide built-in features for formatting query results or generating reports. The result of a SQL query is usually returned as a table or set of rows.
SQLPlus provides various commands for formatting query output, including controlling column widths, adding headers and footers, defining page breaks, and customizing the appearance of the output. It also supports generating reports by incorporating SQL queries within the report layout.
In summary, SQL is the standard language for working with relational databases, while SQLPlus is an Oracle-specific command-line tool that enhances SQL by providing additional commands and capabilities for formatting, reporting, and controlling the execution environment. SQLPlus is commonly used by Oracle database administrators and developers for managing and interacting with Oracle databases.